04 Oct Advertising Law In India
At present in India, there’s no central statutory agency or uniform legislation regulating the advertising industry. The Indian advertising market as an entire is regulated and controlled by a non-statutory body, the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI). within the absence of uniform integrated legislation, it’s necessary for advertisers to make sure that a billboard is in compliance will all local and national advertisement laws.
1.1 Role of the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI)
ASCI may be a voluntary self-regulatory council established in 1985 to market responsible advertising and to reinforce public confidence in advertisements. The council’s objectives are:
- To ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made by advertisements
- To ensure that advertisements aren’t offensive to generally accepted standards of public decency
- To safeguard against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of products considered hazardous to society or to individuals.
- To ensure that advertisements observe fairness in competition so on inform the buyer on choices within the marketplace while observing the canons of generally accepted competitive behavior in business
ASCI consists of a Board of Governors and a Consumer Complaints Council. The Board of Governors comprises four members from each of the four sections connected with the advertising industry:
- Advertising Agencies
- Media (owners of press, television, radio etc.)
- Related sectors (e.g. outdoor agencies, PR, market researchers, ad producers, business schools)
1.2 The ASCI Code: Self-Regulation of Advertising
To regulate advertisement in India, ASCI has adopted a Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising (“ASCI Code”), which applies to all or any involved within the commissioning, creation, placement, or publishing of advertisements. This ASCI Code applies to advertisements read, heard, or viewed in India albeit they originate or are published abroad goodbye as they’re directed to consumers in India or are exposed to a big number of consumers in India.
Though non-statutory, the ASCI Code is recognized under various Indian laws additionally to being adopted by advertising-industry bodies. Notably, the ASCI Code provides that it’s not in competition with any law,its rules, or the machinery through which they’re enforced, thus the ASCI Code is meant only to enrich legal controls under such laws and to not usurp or replace them.
1.3 Laws: Statutory Regulation of Advertising
Complementing the ASCI Code are Indian laws governing specific media, specific populations, and specific goods and services. the foremost significant of those laws are listed here.
Laws Governing Media
- The Press Council Act 1978
- Cable Television Network Rules, 1994
- Code for Commercial Advertising on Doordarshan and every one India Radio
- Electronic Media Monitoring Centre (EMMC)
- Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India
- Code of Conduct of the News Broadcasters Association
Laws Protecting Society and therefore the Consumer
- Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950
- Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956
- Companies Act, 1956
- Standards of Weight & Measures Act, 1976
- Indecent Representation of girls (Prohibition) Act, 1986
- Consumer Protection Act, 1986
- Laws associated with property rights
- The Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940
- The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994
- The Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954
- The Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994
Advocates Act, 1961
- Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992
- Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992
- The Prize Chits and Money Circulation Schemes (Banning) Act, 1978
- Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and
- Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003
- Public Gambling Act, 1867, the Lotteries (Regulation) Act, 1998 and therefore the Prize Competitions Act, 1955
- Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002
The Food Safety & Standards Act, 2006
2 Products and Services Banned From Advertising
The Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (“Tobacco Prohibition Act”) prohibits all direct and indirect advertising of tobacco products altogether media.
2.2 Human Organs
The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994: This law provides for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of economic dealings in human organs. This law prohibits any advertising inviting persons to provide , offering to provide , any human organ for payment.
2.3 Magical Remedies
The Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954 prohibits advertisement of magical remedies of diseases and disorders.
2.4 Services for Pre-Natal Determination of Sex
The Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 prohibits advertisements concerning pre-natal determination of sex.
2.5 Infant formula
Advertising forbidden so as to encourage natural feeding of infants. See details under Food.
2.6 Prize Chits and Money Circulation Schemes
The Prize Chits and Money Circulation Schemes (Banning) Act, 1978 prohibits advertisements concerning prize chit2 and money circulation schemes.
Under the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, issued under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, physicians aren’t allowed to advertise their services in any form or manner of advertising through any mode, as soliciting of patients directly or indirectly, by a physician, by a gaggle of physicians, or by institutions or organizations is unethical. (A physician refers to a doctor with a qualification of MBBS or MBBS with a postgraduate degree/diploma or with the same qualification in any medical discipline.) However, medical practitioners are allowed to form a proper announcement in press regarding the following:
- On starting practice
- On change of sort of practice
- On changing address
- On temporary absence from duty
- On resumption of another practice
- On succeeding to a different practice
- Public declaration of charges
2.8 Legal Services
The Bar Council of India Rules formulated under the Advocates Act 1961 strictly enforce the advertisement ban and publicity rules governing law firms’ websites. These rules were enacted and enforced to curb the false advertisement of lawyers to realize publicity to draw in clients.
3 Regulations associated with Product and repair Advertising
3.1 Alcohol (Beer, Wine, and Spirits)
The Cable Television Network Rules, 1994, the Advertising Codes of Doordarshan, and therefore the All India Radio and Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India prohibit any advertisement directly or indirectly promoting the assembly , sale, or consumption of cigarettes, tobacco products, wine, liquor, or other intoxicants. However, some states allow advertising through billboards, signboards etc. but subject to several restrictions. Also, the ASCI Code prohibits use of minors for advertising alcohol products.
3.2 Professionals like Chartered Accountants, Company Secretaries & Cost Accountants
These professionals are prohibited from soliciting clients or professional work by advertisement. However, they’ll issue advertisements about their firm or services of their firm, through any mode of transmission, having inter alia details of names of partners, address and website, telephone, mobile, e-mail, fax number of the member, year of multinational , additional recognized qualifications, languages spoken by the partner(s), honours or awards within the field of teaching, research, authorship etc.
3.3 Firearms, Weapons, and Ammunition
Sale and buy of such items requires a license from government authorities. Therefore, advertisements associated with such products aren’t permissible in India under the Arms Act, 1959.
As per the Food Safety & Standards Act, 2006, no advertisement concerning the quality , quality, quantity or grade-composition, and no representation concerning the necessity for, or the usefulness of any food are often made which is misleading or deceiving or which contravenes the provisions of this law or rules and regulations made thereunder.
3.5 Infant Milk Food
The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992 prohibits the advertising of infant milk substitutes or feeding bottles.
3.6 Gaming (gambling, games of chance; differentiate between private-sector and “state” lotteries)
The federal structure within the Constitution of India explicitly gives the States the proper to legislate upon “gambling and betting”. the general public Gambling Act, 1867 prohibits gambling activities in India. However, the general public Gambling Act permits games of mere skill. In April, 2011, the knowledge Technology Act, 2000 was also amended to ban Internet gambling and online betting websites. The Lotteries (Regulation) Act, 1998 gives power to the concerned government to carry lotteries subject to prescribed conditions. Under section 294-A of the Indian legal code , advertisements of a lottery unless it’s in accordance with the Lotteries (Regulation) Act shall be punishable.
The Prize Competitions Act, 1955controls and regulates prize competitions in certain parts of India and prohibits the advertisement of unauthorized prize competitions.
3.7 Medical Devices
The authority principally liable for regulating medical devices in India is that the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (“CDSCO”) under the provisions of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940. CDSCO’s functions include regulating the medical devices industry by approving for import, manufacture and sale of medical devices in India.
3.8 Medical Services
An institution travel by a physician for a specific purpose like a maternity home, home , private hospital, rehabilitation centre or any sort of training institution etc. could also be advertised within the lay press, but such advertisements shouldn’t contain anything quite the name of the institution, sort of patients admitted, sort of training and other facilities offered and therefore the fees. Please also see 2.7 above.
3.9 Nutritional Supplements: it’s regulated under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006.
3.10 Occult (“Psychic”) Services
These services aren’t legally recognized in India and aren’t permissible under the Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954
3.11 Pharmaceuticals (over-the-counter and prescription medications)
The phrase over-the-counter (OTC) has no legal recognition in India. All the drugs not included within the list of “prescription-only drugs” are considered to be non-prescription drugs (or OTC drugs). Prescription-only drugs are those medicines that are listed in Schedules H and X of the Drug and Cosmetics Rules, 1945.
3.12 Tests and Lab Analysis
The Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940 prohibits advertisements for any drug or cosmetic from using reports of tests or analysis of the Central Drugs Laboratory or by a government analyst.
3.13 Political Candidates, political platforms, political parties, political issues
The Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1996 has the subsequent provisions concerning advertisements:
prohibit advertisements for a period of forty-eight hours ending with the hours fixed for conclusion of polling for any elections during a given polling area.
use of displaying posters, signboards etc. for political advertisement in any public place strictly in accordance with the relevant provisions of the local laws.
equitable opportunity to all or any political parties and candidates to possess access to public advertisement space for election related advertisements during the election period.
use of personal premises for political advertisement only with the voluntary permission of the occupant.
prohibition of any and every one advertisements at the value of the general public exchequer regarding achievements of the political party/ruling government.
The statute provides for a penalty of imprisonment and/or fine for anyone, including advertisers, who contravenes these provisions.
3.14 Products associated with Sexuality (condoms, ED drugs, etc.)
Advertisements associated with sexuality are allowed with the supply that there shouldn’t be any indecent representation of girls under the Indecent Representation of girls (Prohibition) Act 1986. Products must suits the Drugs and Cosmetic Act 1940 and other certification rules under the Cable Television Network Rules 1994.
Under the Cable Television Networks Rules 1994, Advertising Codes of Doordarshan & All India Radio and Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India, advertisement supported religion or to harm religious sentiments aren’t allowed. Also, such advertisement could also be punishable under Indian legal code 1860.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Prohibition of Fraudulent and Unfair Trade Practices concerning Securities Market) Regulations, 2003 issued under section 30 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 prohibits fraudulent or unfair trade securities. These regulations further provide that dealing in securities shall be deemed to be a fraudulent or an unfair trade practice if it involves a billboard that’s misleading or contains distorted information and which can influence the choice of the investors.
3.17 Sexual Services
Advertisement concerning sexual services is against the law in India.
3.18 Tobacco Products (cigarettes, cigars, snuff, pipe tobacco)
Please see para 2.1 above.
There is no specific restriction on the advertisement of toys provided they’re in compliance with other applicable laws.
3.20 Advertisement by Companies
The Companies Act 1956stipulates that no deposits from the overall public should be accepted by public companies (other than non-banking financial companies) without issuing advertisement following the prescribed norms. the businesses Act has also specified various provisions concerning advertisement by Indian companies.
3.21 Advertisement concerning grocery
The Standards of Weight & Measures Act, 1976 prohibits issuing advertisements otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this law.
4. Regulations associated with Advertising Methodology
4.1 Advertising to Children (advertising during and immediately before and after children’s programming)
The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956 prohibits advertisements concerning any harmful publication i.e., any publication that tends to corrupt a youth (person under the age of 18 years) by inciting or encouraging him or her to commit offenses or acts of violence or cruelty or in the other manner whatsoever.
According to the ASCI Code, advertisements addressed to minors shall not contain anything, whether in illustration or otherwise, which could end in their physical, mental, or moral harm or which exploits their vulnerability. for instance , advertisements may not:
Encourage minors to enter strange places or to converse with strangers in an attempt to gather coupons, wrappers, labels or the likes of
Feature dangerous or hazardous acts which are likely to encourage minors to emulate such acts during a manner which could cause harm or injury
Show minors using or twiddling with matches or any inflammable or explosive substance; or twiddling with or using sharp knives, guns, or mechanical or electrical appliances, the careless use of which could lead on to their suffering cuts, burns, shocks, or other injury
Feature minors in promoting tobacco or alcohol-based products
Feature personalities from the sector of sports, music, or cinema for products which, by law, either require a health warning in their advertising or can’t be purchased by minors.
4.2 Celebrity Endorsements
No current restrictions.
4.3 Comparative Advertising (ads that compare the advertiser’s product thereto of a competitor)
The provisions concerning comparative representation were a part of “Unfair Trade Practice” under the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 (MRTP Act). After repeal of the MRTP Act, the provisions concerning unfair trade practices were inserted within the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. However, a business entity cannot claim relief against unfair comparative advertising under the buyer Protection Act, as a business entity isn’t a consumer. this will be haunted only by consumer associations, the central government, or state governments, and it doesn’t provide protection to the business entity adequate to the protection under the MRTP Act. Thus, under the prevailing law, a manufacturer whose goods are disparaged has no standingto seek a remedy. Presently, within the absence of any specific legislative regulating comparative advertising, disputes are decided by various courts on the idea of the facts in each case. However, ASCI code (which is formed a part of the Cable Television Network Rules, 1994 as well) permits advertisement containing comparisons including those where a competitor is known as within the interests of vigorous competition and public enlightenment, provided:
- It is clear what aspects of the advertiser’s product are being compared with what aspects of the competitor’s product.
- The subject matter of comparison isn’t chosen in such how on confer a man-made advantage upon the advertiser approximately on suggest that a far better bargain is obtainable than is actually the case.
- The comparisons are factual, accurate and capable of substantiation.
- There is no likelihood of the buyer being misled as a results of the comparison, whether about the merchandise advertised or that with which it’s compared.
- The advertisement doesn’t unfairly denigrate, attack or discredit other products, advertisers or advertisements directly or by implication.
- Presently, ASCI is actively taking action against any advertisements making unsubstantiated claims, exaggeration, unfair denigration in violation of ASCI Code.
4.4 Contests (games of chance and games of skill)
The Public Gambling Act, 1867 prohibits gambling activities in India. However, the general public Gambling Act permits games of mere skill.
4.5 Deceptive or Misleading Advertising
Deceptive or misleading advertisements are restricted under the varied legislations including the buyer Protection Act, 1986; Cable Television Network Rules, 1994; Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India Act and ASCI Code.
4.6 Surrogate Advertising
The ASCI Code provides that advertisements of products whose advertising is prohibited or restricted by law or by the ASCI Code must not circumvent such restrictions by purporting to be advertisements for other products the advertising of which isn’t prohibited or restricted by law or by ASCI Code. to work out if there’s an indirect advertisement of prohibited products due attention shall tend to the following:
- Visual content of the advertisement must depict only the merchandise being advertised and not the prohibited or restricted product in any form or manner:
- The advertisement must not make any direct or indirect regard to the prohibited or restricted product
- The advertisement must not create any nuances or phrases promoting prohibited products
- The advertisement must not use particular colours and layout or presentations related to prohibited or restricted products
- The advertisement must not use situations typical for promotion of prohibited or restricted products when advertising the opposite products.
- The Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994 has also imposed similar restrictions to curb surrogate advertising.
4.7 Advertorials and Disguised Ads
The Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India, Cable Television Network Rules, 1994 and Advertising Code of Doordarshan requires that advertisements must be clearly distinguishable from news content carried within the newspaper.
4.8 False Advertising
False advertisements are restricted under the varied legislations including the buyer Protection Act, 1986; Cable Television Network Rules, 1994; Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India Act and ASCI Code.
4.9 “Free” Gifts/Samples
The Consumer Protection Act 1986, Section 2 (3) (a) states that (i) the offering of gifts, prizes or other items with the intention of not providing them as offered or creating impression that something is being given or offered freed from charge when it’s fully or partly covered by the quantity charged within the transaction as an entire , or (ii) the conduct of any contest, lottery, game of chance or skill, for the aim of promoting, directly or indirectly, the sale, use or supply of any product or any business interest, is an unfair trade practice.
The Norms for Journalist Conduct issued by the Press Council of India has stated that gift including those given by the advertisement agencies for publication of fabric concerning their clients or otherwise shouldn’t be accepted by the journalist.
4.10 Free Speech (specific limitations, e.g. personal slurs, defamation, political statements)
Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India protects the proper to freedom of speech and expression, which is additionally extended to advertisements. However, like all other right, this freedom is additionally subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by Article 19(2) of the Constitution of India.
Furthermore, the ASCI Code states that no advertisement shall be permitted which:
- Derides any race, caste, color, creed, or nationality
- Tends to incite people to crime or to market disorder and violence or intolerance
- Presents criminality as desirable or directly or indirectly encourages people, particularly minors, to emulate it or conveys the routine of any crime
- Adversely affects friendly relations with a far off state